Liu Shan (in Chinese: 劉禪), also known as Adou (in Chinese: 阿斗), is one of the major protagonists in the 14th-century Chinese classic novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by the late Luo Guanzhong, and its multiple adaptations. He is Liu Bei's eldest son and successor and Empress Zhang's husband.
Liu Shan was born when Liu Bei conquered Jing Province, Liu Bei's competitor, Cao Cao is in radicalization to dominate mixed parts of China. His mother, Lady Gan who ended up divorcing Liu Bei. During the Battle of Changban, Cao Cao withstand to blot out Liu Bei since he rampantly requite the virtueless, Lady Gan and Liu Shan are besieged by Wei forces as they hid in each place. At this point, one of Liu Bei's loyal generals, Zhao Yun permit to come over to defend Liu Shan and Lady Gan. Taking them back to Liu Bei, Zhao Yun keeping holding his primary weapon, Dragon spear to liquidating the enemy forces and and Liu Shan assurance to being in safe with her mother. After the success of the civil war, Zhao Yun walked with Liu Bei together and step by step faced by them, Cao Cao had to withdraw with his forces at all times. A few years later, Sun Quan's younger sister, Sun Shangxiang agreed to marry Liu Bei, Lady Gan dies shortly after experiencing the fettle.
Likewise, Sun Shangxiang always takes care of Liu Shan and even feels underline but too stress. Meanwhile in strained, Liu Bei quarreled with Sun Shangxiang, the couple announced a break up. Zhao Yun and his father's sworn brother, Zhang Fei lucidly discovered that Sun Shangxiang was aiming holding on to Liu Shan in returning to Jing Province, both were inferredly pursue her before taking Liu Shan back to Liu Bei again, the latter was then the only legal guardian of Liu Shan. When Liu Bei leaves Chengdu, the capital of Shu Han, to go to war against Wu. While the latter sent one of Wu generals, Lu Meng to invade the Jing Province, but he did while capturing and executing one of Liu Bei's sworn brothers, Guan Yu and his son Guan Ping. After Liu Bei become the emperor of Shu, Liu Bei suffered a stinging defeat at the Battle of Yiling and retreat to Baidi Castle with his army.
Before his dying, Liu Bei entrusts the young Liu Shan to the good care of his Prime Minister Zhuge Liang, even advising the latter to ascend the throne, if ever Liu Shan reveals to be unable to assume his role. After Liu Bei's death, Liu Shan replaced his father's tremendous desire so he appointment as a newcomer emperor and leader of Shu, think of he was in optative extravagant life and even his own wealth prod be veiled. Zhuge Liang clearly served under Liu Shan, Liu Shan treating him as his adoptive father. However, Zhuge Liang ordered his wantonism while a recruitment of several officials, such as Fei Yi, Dong Yun, Guo Youzhi, Xiang Chong, and other ones. Liu Shan is destined to be in taking control of the alliance between Shu and Wu kingdom, which exclusive to laud dazzle who had to survived to incline on forcing against with Wei kingdom.
But later on, Liu Shan decided to marries with one of Zhang Fei's pretty daughters, Empress Zhang in a basis of his own allegations, Zhuge Liang is precisely going to crumble with the troops as abiding, Liu Shan overthink that Zhuge Liang wanna to be discreet with Wei forces in the most campaigns. During the wars battles in Nanzhong, Zhuge Liang led Zhao Yun, Ma Dai, Guan Xing, and Wei Yan to putting down the Nanman forces. Survey up to be honor at the winner of the armies, Zhuge Liang fought against Meng Huo three of five times as just drops to insurrection and validate pleasing let him go. After Meng Huo had been surrendered many times, Zhuge Liang was sentenced to make him a supportive cobber and would never have been able to launch his expeditions against the Wei. Zhuge Liang launched his five Northern Campaigns against Wei. Except for one of them, all these expeditions end with military failures, without turning into disaster.
Each time, the Shu armies fall short of supply and are forced to retreat without inflicting significant damage to the Wei, which Liu Shan immediately accepts. During the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, Zhuge Liang officially suffered a serious illness. Even his opponent Sima Yi really wants to win the battle. In order to let Zhuge Liang die, eulogize him for the good journey. Liu Shan is reminiscent of loneliness in connection with the death of Zhuge Liang, Sima Yi's best is to be alive, no matter how Zhuge Liang's only inheritance, Liu Shan has be vexed as cries out to lament him. After Zhuge Liang's death, Sima Yi must be withdrawing from the campaign. Three years later, Liu Shan remarried after his former wife died. Shu eminent officers, Jiang Wei and Jiang Wan are dedicately replaced Zhuge Liang as an innocent protectors and conducted 12 northern expeditions, which have been treated as a subsidiary of Liu Shan.
At the wedding ceremony, Liu Shan and his current wives, Jiang Wei, Jiang Wan, and Fei Yi are wine drunk at a wedding feast on the court. Shu was in a defensive position, no longer a threat to Wei. For many Wu generals, this was a falsely sign of the Alliance's demise and the beginning of a reference to Wei, but Sun Quan saw it as correct Sign of weakness Shu Han. Jiang Wan fell ill and transferred most of his authority to Fei Yi and his assistant Dong Yun. Fei Yi led the army to Hanzhong, when Wei chancellor Cao Shuang is trying to attacked there, inflicting a significant defeat on Wei. Jiang Wan retained his influence until his death. After Jiang Wan and Dong Yun dies, the emperor is quite appointed Jiang Wei as his assistant, but both were busy with military plans, while the emperor became more and more concerned with personal matters. Liu Shan began his travels through the empire and increased the luxury at court, which burdens the state budget intensely.
Jiang Wei wanted to resume Zhuge Liang's attacks on Wei, in which Fei Yi partially agreed. Although he allowed him to hold raids on the borders with Wei, but never gave him enough troops to seriously threaten Wei. Sima Yi launched a coup, Xiahou Ba was forced to visit Shu Han. However, because did not know the road of Shu and lost the way, Xiahou Ba still unable to find a way to walk down the foot. Liu Shan immediately sent someone to pick up after learning, he always comforted Xiahou Ba after seeing him, who said that Xiahou Ba's father, Xiahou Yuan was killed by Huang Zhong on the battlefield. Liu Shan only helped Jiang Wei and other troops continue to praise and managed to let Fei Yi enjoy any blow. Under his own efforts, Jiang Wei can be stabilized with approval and should not be regrettable for some of them.
Overall, Liu Shan must know that it is easy to be ingenious, Fei Yi was murdered by General Guo Xun, who had previously defected from Wei to Shu. Jiang Wei took command of the forces of Shu Han, but a power vacuum on internal affairs arose as Jiang Wei stayed at the border to conduct campaigns against Wei. Jiang Wei is launched a joint attack against Wu regent Zhuge Ke, Shu Han's oldest ally, against the Wei kingdom. The Wei forces concentrated on Zhuge Ke's forces falling in battle and was the second and final joint attack by Shu and Wu on Wei empire. Wei supreme minister, Sima Zhao dispatched his generals Zhong Hui, Deng Ai, and Zhuge Xu to conquer Shu, Liu Shan sent Zhang Yi, Liao Hua, and Dong Jue to dismiss the enemies. Jiang Wei led the public to block more than 100,000 troops in the sword court, but Deng Ai sneaked into the capital and went straight to Chengdu.
After negotiating with the ministers, Liu Shan decided to send Zhuge Liang's son, Zhuge Zhan to lead the troops to defeated the enemy. Although Zhuge Zhan broke the forward of Deng Ai's army, Zhuge Zhan refused to listen to Huang Chong's advice and could keep their posts without flattery. Huang Hao even tried to replace Jiang Wei with his friend Yan Yu. When Jiang Wei heard about it, he ordered the Emperor to execute Huang Hao, but he refused. Sima Zhao devised a plan to finally destroy Shu Han, Jiang Wei heard rumors about it, he warned the emperor at the border before the Wei troops were trodden under Zhong Hui and Deng Ai. Huang Hao, however, relied on the fortune-tellers who declared an attack on Wei unlikely and persuaded the emperor not to do anything. However, Sima Zhao started the attack led by Zhong Hui and Deng Ai.
By charge, Liu Shan followed Jiang Wei's old plan, pulled the troops off the border and let them prepare the trap for Wei. But instead of besieging the border towns, Deng Ai and Zhong Hui ignored them and took the Yang'an Pass. Jiang Wei was able to joined his armies and call them back, Deng Ai led his forces deep into Shu territory through the almost impassable mountains, launching a surprise attack on Jiangyou. After defeating Zhuge Zhan there were no more troops between Deng Ai and the capital Chengdu. In view of the hopeless situation, the emperor accepted the advice of his secretary Qiao Zhou and surrendered. Many criticized this move, Weng Yin described it in his notes of Shu as an act of charity towards the people. Zhong Hui made an attempt to break the power of the Sima family in the Wei kingdom and rose with the support of Jiang Wei, who once again wanted to proclaim Liu Shan as emperor of Shu.
After Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei's death, Liu Shan and his family were ordered to the capital, Luoyang. After the spring and autumn annals of Han and Jin, Sima Zhao one day invited Liu Shan to a festival where he played traditional dances and music from Shu. When all this left Liu Shan unmoved among his wistful officials, Sima asked him if he did not miss his kingdom. This saying became a Chinese proverb meaning "too cheerful to think of the homeland", usually with a negative implication. Sima Zhao regarded Liu Shan as an incompetent fool. Later historians see it as a sign of Liu Shan's wisdom not to appear as a threat to Sima Zhao. Liu Shan seems to decide to change his own destiny, but he wants to live that ordinary life anyway. Liu Shan also died in later years, it was given the posthumous name "Duke Si of Anle" and "Emperor Xiaohuai".
- He is one of the playable characters in the Dynasty Warriors series.